Page ContentOverviewWELCOME TO THE WORKING MEMORY AND LANGUAGE LABORATORY! What is Working Memory?Working memory refers to the ability to remember information for short periods of time in order to solve a problem or accomplish a task. Remembering a list of ingredients while navigating the grocery store, following the steps of a recipe, and converting fractions for a double-batch of cookies all require working memory. Working memory isn't only useful for cooking. It's used whenever you have to figure out something new, and it supports long-term learning. Why is language important to working memory?Working memory is important for making sense of language. We can only hear or read words one-at-a-time. Therefore, we must hold onto the words—and their order—while simultaneously creating meaning and thinking about our own response. Children with hearing loss must especially rely on working memory. Because the auditory signal they get is sometimes ambiguous, children with hearing loss often problem-solve to work out the meaning of what they hear. Current Projects: AUDITORY DISTRATION IN CHILDRENIf we want to ignore parts of our visual world, we can easily just turn around or shut our eyes. Children with typical hearing cannot just "turn off" their hearing; therefore, the auditory world poses a constant opportunity for distraction. Although the presence of irrelevant sound impairs memory in children, we believe that it also provides a valuable opportunity to learn to control attention in the face of distraction. First, we want to understand how these attentional processes develop in typically-hearing children to support memory and learning. Then we will explore how attentional development is impacted by a period of hearing deprivation and the subsequent ability to "turn off" hearing aids and cochlear implants. THE DEVELOPMENT OF "SELF-TALK" AS A MEMORY STRATEGYIt is common for adults to talk to themselves when they need to remember something. When an adult silently says the same word or phrase over and over in an attempt to commit it to memory, we call this rehearsal. Unfortunately, we know much less about how and when children rehearse. In this project, we measure how children's rehearsal changes as the memory task gets harder. We also want to know how children's use of rehearsal changes over time. FIND US ON FACEBOOK! Team Angela AuBuchon, Ph.D., is the Director of the Working Memory and Language Laboratory. Her doctoral training was conducted at the University of Missouri under the mentorship of Dr. Nelson Cowan, whose Embedded Processes Model of Working Memory serves as one of the most-often-cited alternatives to Alan Baddeley's Multicomponent Model. In 2012, she moved to Bloomington, Indiana where she received postdoctoral training from Dr. David B. Pisoni. Her postdoctoral work investigated the executive function of children and adolescents with cochlear implants. Prior to earning her Ph.D., Dr. AuBuchon worked as a behavioral interventionist with Missouri FirstSteps and the Judevine Center for Autism in St. Louis, Missouri. These experiences inspire her to apply her deep theoretical training to answer clinically relevant questions. Grace Meissner, B.A., is a research assistant in the Working Memory and Language Laboratory. She received her bachelor's degree in psychology from the University of Nebraska Omaha in 2015. She is currently working on her master's degree in Clinical Mental Health Counseling. Grace has had previous experience working with children and adults with developmental disabilities. She has worked as a direct support professional at the Autism Center of Nebraska and as a special education paraprofessional at Bellevue Public Schools. Elizabeth Monzingo, M.M., is a research assistant in the Working Memory and Language Laboratory. She received a B.A. in music composition, a B.M. in psychology, and a M.M. in music theory from the University of Oklahoma. Her doctoral training in music theory and music cognition began at Louisiana State University and will be completed at The Ohio State University. Originally from Papillion, Elizabeth is back in the Omaha metro to conduct research in working memory involving acoustic stimuli. Her experiences teaching music theory and aural skills, as well as her studies in cognitive processes, motivate her broad interest in working memory and music and drive her to seek pedagogical applications for her research.CONSULTANTS and COLLABORATORSDr. Denis F. Fitzpatrick, Research Computer Engineer III, Boys Town National Research Hospital Dr. Emily Elliott, Professor, Louisiana State University Dr. James Heaton, Associate Professor, Harvard Medical School; Associate Neuroscientist, Mass. General Hosp.; Professor, MGH Institute of Health ProfessionsPublicationsSelected PublicationsAuBuchon, A.M., Pisoni, D.B. & Kronenberger, W.G. (2015). Short-Term and Working Memory Impairments in Early-Implanted, Long-Term Cochlear Implant Users are Independent of Audibility and Speech Production.Ear and Hearing, 36(6), 733-737. AuBuchon, A. M., Pisoni, D. B., & Kronenberger, W. G. (2015). Verbal Processing Speed and Executive Functioning in Long-Term Cochlear Implant Users.Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 58(1), 151-162. Montag, J. L., AuBuchon, A. M., Pisoni, D. B., & Kronenberger, W. G. (2014). Speech intelligibility in deaf children after long-term cochlear implant use. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 57(6), 2332-2343. Cowan, N., AuBuchon, A.M., Gilchrist, A.L., Ricker, T.J., & Saults, J.S. (2011). Age differences in visual working memory capacity: Not based on encoding limitations. Developmental Science, 14, 1066-1074. Cowan, N., Hismjatullina, A., AuBuchon, A.M., Saults, J.S., Horton, N., Leadbitter, K., & Towse, J. (2010). With development, list recall includes more chunks, not just larger ones. Developmental Psychology, 46(5), 1119-1131. Cowan, N., Morey, C. C., AuBuchon, A. M., Zwilling, C. E., & Gilchrist, A. L. (2010). Seven- year-olds allocate attention like adults do unless working memory is overloaded. Developmental Science, 13, 120-133. Cowan N. & AuBuchon A. M. (2008). Short-term memory loss over time without retroactive stimulus interference. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15, 230-235. ParticipateWe are currently inviting children ages 4 to 10 with normal hearing to participate in our studies. To sign your child up to participate, you can complete the online research participation form or contact our lab directly: Working Memory and Language LaboratoryPhone: 531-355-5680E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgDirections and ParkingBoys Town National Research Hospital555 N. 30th StreetOmaha, NE 68131 The Working Memory and Language Lab is located on the 3rd floor near the pediatric eye clinic. Your research appointment will take place at Boys Town National Research Hospital, located at the intersection of 30th & Cass St. The hospital has a parking area (South Patient Lot) directly east of the building. Enter the double doors near the Security office. Please follow the hallway to the left and go to the elevators. Take the elevator to the second floor. Once you get off the elevator, take a left and walk straight until you get to another elevator (on the left past the clinic check-in desk). Take the elevator to the third floor and take a left. Follow the signs for the pediatric eye clinic. Enter the waiting room and follow the signs to the phone and call 5680. When you arriveA research staff member will greet you at the door and escort you to the lab. The staff member will explain the study and answer any questions you may have. You and your child will be given a form to formally consent to participate in the study.Please note that a parent or legal guardian will need to accompany your child to their research appointment.During the visitYour child will be given a hearing and vision screening. Some participants may receive additional language and neurocognitive testing. The length of the visit varies, but tend to be 1-2 hours. Your child will be given frequent breaks. During the study, your child will be asked to remember numbers, words, or pictures. Your child may be asked to listen to sounds through headphones. We are also incorporating novel measures, such as surface electromyography and respiration rate, as physiological indicators of silent self-talk. Some children may wear stickers on their neck and face that let us measure muscle movement.We have a waiting room with toys where you may supervise and entertain any other young guests (e.g. your child's siblings) who may need to accompany you to the appointment.After the visitWhen we are done, your child will be paid for their time. He or she will also get to pick out a small prize. Some participants will be offered the opportunity to return for a follow-up visit.Thank you for participating in research at Boys Town National Research Hospital! Resources The Learning ScientistsA blog on issues of attention, memory, and learning. Cognitive psychologists Megan Sumeracki and Yana Weinstein (as well as their amazing team of guest bloggers) summarize research findings for students, educators, parents, and anyone who wants to learn how to learn. The Psych ShowClinical psychologist Ali Mattu brings psychology to life in his personal, often nerd-inspired, explanations of psychological phenomenon. His YouTube channel features topics on sci-fi ("The Last Jedi Psychology Explained") with the same thoroughness as his overviews of mental health ("How to overcome social anxiety"). It's a Noisy Planet, Protect Their HearingAn educational campaign supported by the National Institutes of Health, Noisy Planet provides resources to teach children about how hearing works and how to prevent hearing loss.